Tiara Scythian king Saytafarnu
At the beginning of 1895 at Odessa engraver Ruhomovskogo Israel, living on the street. Assumption, 36, was a man who made an interesting inquiry, saying that a scientist from Kerch need to make a gift - a golden helmet, similar to the one that 20 years earlier found in Kerch in the construction of the fortress. The man introduced himself Ermolai left the book "Russian antiquity" published N. Kondakov and I. Tolstoy; "Atlas of the course of ancient history Weiser" and the image of the "Shield of Scipio" (Scipio Africanus - the Roman general, a fan of Hellenic culture.
His shield is decorated with bas-reliefs on the theme of "The Iliad" and "Odyssey"). For his work, he promised 2,000 rubles, leaving half for prepayment. I. Ruhomovsky ordered Odessa jeweler Demora plate of gold, weighing 486 grams. and went to work. After 8 months of the end of 1895, the helmet was ready. It was a tiara Scythian king Saytafarnu. It was a grand domed hat - crown minted entirely of thin gold band. Tiara surface was divided into three parts ornament. The middle part of the most wide, was covered with scenes from Homer's "Iliad" and "Odyssey": farewell to Achilles, burning the corpse of Patroclus Achilles; Odyssey that lead horses. In the lower third of the tiara were images of Scythian warriors, royal hunting for a fantastic winged beast, figures of horses, oxen, sheep. The upper part of the tiara was beaten openwork ornament and ended scaly snake rings topped with top and raised his head. Between the second and third belt around the circle was an inscription in Greek, is that the tiara presented a gift Saytafarnu king of the Scythians residents of Olbia. Olbia was not far from Odessa and antique shops were packed with mainly finds from the excavations of the ancient settlements around Odessa and mainly from Parutino that housed the Greek colony of Olbia. Customer paid off, took the job. Staying in Odessa, he could not resist to show it to his old friend the buyer-known antiquities Gokhman Sh. Together with his brother they held in Odessa and Ochakov shop "colonial goods" (dates, rice, tea, pepper), but they were among collectors are known as antiquities dealers. Heavy looting of ancient sites has given birth to an entire profession diggers graves - "lucky" finds that bought "dealers in antiquities," from which they fall into the hands of collectors or museums. The brothers Hochman long and successful trading Antica. However, demand is outstripping supply and brothers Hochman, with Gorpischenko were known in the South as the largest sellers of fake antiquities. Sometimes in the ancient stele carved inscription of these carved stones was compiled diadem, but most often faked the whole thing. Especially the size reached fake antique coins. In the Kerch famous Captain border guards Sazonov, who misled the venerable numismatists. I've seen in the collections of the Kherson Museum of Chios transport amphora, covered with black lacquer - the only known case in which the amphora covered with lacquer! It is not excluded that this is also an amphora from the collection Gokhman. There is stored and a collection of ceramic stamps from Nikon, with the inscription "Gokhman collection." In February 1896 in Vienna, the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, announced a "merchant of Ochakovo" one Sh.Gohman. Hochman was an accomplished swindler and a good psychologist. From his bag, the former in his hands, he took and put on the table in front of members of the Directorate golden brooches (buckle) that holds clothes on the shoulders of the ancient Greeks, and the earrings, the works of ancient Greek masters. Having admire these rarities and thus psychologically prepare clients, he took out an object wrapped in woolen cloth, and deploying, solemnly declared: "Tiara Saytafarnu Scythian king." Bruno Bucher Leyshing and Hugo, who saw a lot of old, were, in their own words, appalled. That record their story: "On the table, radiating a soft matte shine of gold, stood the ancient chased Tiara amazing performance and excellent preservation. Only in one place was a small dent, as if from a blow of the sword, but the decorations around almost not damaged. The first question asked admiring and amazed the director of the Vienna Museum, was: "Ger Hochman, where you have this crown?". According Leyshinga, Hochman said: "Miracles do not happen, although the crown - a miracle. Last summer, scientists conducted excavations in Olbia and not far from it excavated Scythian tomb where he was buried with his wife Saytafarnu. From there, tiara and other jewelry that got me a lot of money. After all, it is necessary that at least once in a lifetime lucky poor businessman. " The management of the museum invited top experts in ancient archeology and art Vienna: Professors Benndorfa, Bormann, Schneider, and they unanimously confirmed the ancient origin of the Tiara, a high artistic value, and most importantly - its unconditional antiquity. But the price requested Gokhman. It was so great that the Vienna Museum was unable to acquire the tiara and get the money in stages Hochman refused. Turning his treasure, Hochman left Vienna. Hochman was forced to return to Russia, authorizing the sale of the two tiaras Viennese antique dealers. Those went to the Louvre in Paris. As Viennese scientists Parisian authorities have recognized the tiara works of ancient art, and stated that such a thing would be proud of the Louvre. Total had been invited as an expert 8 largest French scientists, specialists in antiquity and the history of art. Experts unanimously recognized Tiara masterpiece of Greek art and said that such a thing would be proud of the Louvre. Sellers demanded huge sum in those days 220 000 francs, which corresponds to about 100 000 rubles. This amount did not have the Louvre, and it could only allocate the Chamber of Deputies of France. Doubt on the consent of the Chamber was not made and a few patrons have the required amount, and was soon followed by the decision to pay for the purchase from the budget of the Republic. Antique dealers, were leading the negotiations with the Louvre received 120,000 francs, Hochman was 86 000. The tiara was exhibited in the Hall of Ancient Art and the Louvre attracts visitors from all over the world. But in August 1896 at the Archaeological Congress in Riga, director of the Odessa Museum of Ernst von Stern in his report showed that Tiara - fake. Professor Adolf Furtwängler from Munich and St. Petersburg Professor Alexander Veselovsky was supported by Ernst von Stern.
The scandal broke only seven years later, when in 1903 the French newspaper published an interview with the French artist from Montmartre Elina, who claimed that he was the author of a tiara. He broke a terrible scandal. All Paris cabaret singing couplets about scientists, shrunken in galoshes and members of the House, to allocate money for the crooks. Soon it turned out that Ellen made it up, but interest has grown extraordinarily tiara - three days 30,000 people visited the Louvre. But soon, the newspaper published an interview with a Russian jeweler, who claimed that he assisted in 8 months goldsmith from Odessa to Israel in the manufacture of Rahumovskomu tiara. A few days later a special correspondent for one of the largest newspapers telegraphed from Odessa, "Carver Rahumovsky Israel, who lives in Odessa, Assumption, 36, to announce with certainty that he - the creator of the Tiara." Rahumovsky ready to come to Paris and to prove the truth of his words, if you pay for the trip and will be reimbursed for loss of income during his stay in Paris. He asked 1200 francs. Louvre, to pay a huge sum for the acquisition ranges, even went on a spending spree to establish the truth. Paris has split into two camps: saytafarnistov and anti-saytafarnistov. Ruhomovskogo name was on everyone's lips. Fifth Ruhomovsky April 1903 went to Paris and stayed at the hotel, not wanting to attract attention, under an assumed name Bardes. But reporters quickly got wind of who the Bardes and literally besieged and then stormed the room Ruhomovskogo. Photo Ruhomovskogo and Tiaras bypassed newspapers around the world. A special governmental commission in an interview with Ruhomovsky quickly found out that he is not familiar with ancient archeology, the history of ancient Greek art and features of the era style products Saytafarnu. Ruhomovsky without hesitation explained a little-known recipe for which was made by an alloy of gold plates from which was made tiara. From memory in the presence of experts it accurately reproduced the number of images made chiseled on Tiare. Ruhomovsky revealed book brought to him by the customer in order to have a sample of Greek art. According to figures from the books he created a scene depicted in Tiare. Completed samples were absolutely identical and had no doubt - Tiara false. She was transferred to the Museum of Modern Art, and then it is back to the Louvre, which houses among the fakes. Ruhomovsky returned to Odessa in the Assumption 36 and continued to work. His studio had no signage. He did not have the necessary capital to obtain a patent merchant third guild. According to the author of the pamphlet Ruhomovsky "... it until recently, remained little known to the public, except for the exploiters and traffickers magazinovladeltsev who cleverly use them." Before World War (between 1909 and 1912) went to France and worked in the restoration workshops at the national museum of France - Louvre, and died in 1936 at age 76. According to his niece - the past few years could not work very misery. But the story did not end the biggest scam. In 1971 there was a second instance of a tiara! Jewelers and antiques dealer from Gibraltar William GORPO tried to sell the tiara, claiming that it is the 2nd instance and, like the first, his father had done, not Ruhomovsky. However, it soon became clear that the presented tiara - rough fake, made from photographs from the album of the Louvre and GORPO William, son of the famous at the end of the XIX century. of the buyer and the merchant fakes of ancient values, rival brothers Gokhman - Gorpischenko. He emigrated from Russia in 1919 and opened a small jewelry store in Gibraltar. This, as far as I know, the only case when trying to copy a fake and sell it. Nowadays craftsmen forge not only jewelry and coins, but the dishes, terracotta, sculpture ... It is possible that the value of counterfeit replenish the collection, not only private collectors, but the collection of famous museums. But surpass in glory tiara Scythian king Saytafarnu probably will never be possible.