Medals and printing False Dmitry I
In the history of the Russian state was a period called the Time of Troubles. Then, after the death of the childless tsar Fyodor Ivanovich, who for piety called Blessed, Moscow swore allegiance to his wife - the queen Irina. But she gave up the throne and became a nun.
When Moscow was suddenly without a king, all eyes turned to the ruler Boris Godunov, however, and the long renounced the throne: he, too, went to the monastery, however, without taking vows. Then the Zemsky Sobor was convened of representatives of all ranks and people from all the cities of the Muscovite state, which unanimously elected to the throne of Boris Godunov.
However, the well-born nobles and princes, descendants of Rurik and Gediminas, harbored in the soul of anger and jealousy to the new king-upstart - a descendant of the Tatar nobleman on the Russian throne. But Boris Godunov was able to reign and rule, however, only the first two years of his reign was peaceful and prosperous. Although people have been fed, and in the country reigned order, no one has forgotten the murder of Tsarevich Dmitry in Uglich.At this time the historical arena comes a monk Grigory tow, who says that he is the prince Dmitri, escaped from death. Appearing in Poland, he announced his intention to go toMoscow, earn their "ancestral throne." It would seem that the fight against the unknown and powerless young adventurer with a powerful Boris Godunov victory over the latter: however, the aid False Dmitry I, apart from the Poles came to the Dnieper and the Don Cossacks, disgruntled by the fact that King Boris was trying to hamper their freedom and submit to the authority of the Moscow governor.And the winner was "defrocked": in October 1604, he entered the Moscow State, and many cities one after the other opens its gates to him. In June 1605 Moscow triumphantly met its "legal nature" king of Dmitry Ivanovich, while nobles and understand that the throne went to his son not Ivan the Terrible, and the monk Grishka Otrepiev.Soon, under the direction of Basil Shuisky against False Dmitry I plot it was organized. Boyars broke into the royal chambers to kill the impostor. Gregory Otrepyev fled, but jumping out of windows, twisted his leg and was captured. Pretender was killed, his corpse was burned after the desecration and mixing the ashes with gunpowder, shot from a gun in the direction whence it came ...Despite the short-term rule of "tsar" Dmitry Ivanovich medal in the history of the case are known several awards, which they were minted in 1604-1605-ies. One of the oldest monuments of this type is to print False Dmitry I, which he put to the "Records" issued sendomirskomu governor Yuri Mniszek. "Record", this refers to May 1604, that is, to the time when Gregory Otrepyev was still in Poland, and only declared himself a contender for the throne. This can be seen in a circular inscription on the seal, which reads as follows: Dmitri Ivanovich Tsarevich Moskovski God's mercy.Font of the circular inscription - the transition from the statute for civil - up to that time in Russia was not used. In addition, within it, to the rim of the beads is depicted two-headed eagle, a drawing similar to the eagle of the Roman Empire. On the breast of an eagle - a shield with the coat of arms of Moscow (St. George), but in the Russian eagle sphragistics of this type can also be found for the first time.Researcher A. Lakier in the XVII century in his book "Russian heraldry" wrote about this medal the following:The eagle under three crowns is the first time to print. Falsdmitry rule. Two small crown, resting on the heads of the eagle, it is the same as the print of Ivan the Terrible. But the crown medium, large, and have a royal straight corresponding to the title Imperator, who accepted and used the alleged son of John.Print this without a doubt, was cut in Poland, as well as a medal of the first year of the reign of the False Dmitry I. Depicted on this coin is presented for the first time an impostor "Caesar" with all the attributes of his power: the crown, scepter and orb in his hands. The obverse side of the coin is clearly the Western character, as shown in her impersonator wearing Western-style armor. Circular inscription in Latin uppercase letters, contains the title Imperator, which was then in Russia was not used, and ends with the date (year life of the king). Pointing to the number of his years, as the imposter would confirm that it is just the son of Ivan the Terrible, who was born in 1482 and who was considered dead.On the reverse side of the coin Western influence is noticeable only in the crown, crowning the eagle, and in an elaborate shield on which is depicted the eagle. However, in drawing eagle itself is a Byzantine style. This medal, as historians say, was intended for the distribution of foreigners during the coronation of False Dmitry, and because the image and the inscription on it the Russian people were not clear. However, the very design of the medals was clearly designed for something to get the attention and Russian nationals and foreign patrons impostor. It was not by accident depicted in the royal crown and was named "Emperor" and "Caesar" - a title not peculiar to the Russian tsars. False Dmitry knew their dependence on the Polish patrons, so the coronation medals and became the first of the means of struggle for the recognition of him the royal title.In 1605 it was minted medallions profile "king of Dmitry Ivanovich," which meant, in all probability, also for distribution during the coronation. And four different variants of such a medal was made. The medals were gold, and on both sides of them were circular inscriptions.On the front side: Dimitri Ivanovich Bozhieyu Milostiyu Veliky King and Prince of All Russia and all x Tatarskih Korolevstv and inyh mnogih Gosudarstv.On the reverse side: Moskovskiy Monarh, lord and Gospodar, King and Winner Nizhegorodskiy and Samoderzhets.